" Neonicotinoid insecticides dissolve easily in water, but do not break down quickly in the environment." " This is the first broad-scale investigation of neonicotinoid insecticides in the Midwestern United States and one of the first conducted within the United States."
“We noticed higher levels of these insecticides after rain storms during crop planting, which is similar to the spring flushing of herbicides that has been documented in Midwestern U.S. rivers and streams,” said USGS scientist Michelle Hladik, the report’s lead author. “In fact, the insecticides also were detected prior to their first use during the growing season, which indicates that they can persist from applications in prior years.”
"One of the chemicals, imidacloprid, is known to be toxic to aquatic organisms at 10-100 nanograms per liter if the aquatic organisms are exposed to it for an extended period of time. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam behave similarly to imidacloprid, and are therefore anticipated to have similar effect levels. Maximum concentrations of clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid measured in this study were 257, 185, and 42.7 nanograms per liter, respectively."
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After we gathered a frame of honey, we sampled a bit with fresh cherries, peaches, plums and pecans and blue cheese, and a few Lotus biscuits. It was very light and a little peppery. It is always nice to share fresh honey with good friends and family.
"Of the more than one million species of animals in the world, 94 percent are invertebrates. The services they perform, Pollination, seed dispersal, food for wildlife, nutrient recycling, are critical to life on our planet. Indeed, without them whole ecosystems would collapse. But when decisions are made about environmental policy and land management, these vital and diverse creatures are often overlooked. The Xerces Society works to address this situation through advocacy, policy, education and outreach, applied research, and publications."
Learn more about this amazing advocacy group at their website http://www.xerces.org/